Home LM10


Hurri Civilization


Mitanni Kingdom and Cultural Influence

Establishment and Rule of the Mitanni Kingdom

The Hurri civilization emerged in eastern Anatolia and was governed by the Mitanni kingdom, led by a king with Indian descent. Positioned between the Hittites and Assyria, the Hurrians originated from the mountains south of the Caspian Sea. In the late 15th century B.C., the beginning of the Hittite Empire saw an increase in Hurrian names within the royal family Hatti Civilization.

Distinct Hurri Language and Cultural Legacy

The Hurri language stood as a distinct entity, separate from others. The culture and language of the Hurri civilization were extensively utilized by Urartians and Hittites in the subsequent centuries. Their gods exhibited similarities to Hittite deities, leading many to suspect a Hurrian influence.

Title: Heraclitus of Ephesus: Influential Greek Philosopher

Introduction to Heraclitus


Hatti Civilization


The Hatti Civilization (2500-2000 B.C.) Ancient Anatolian Settlers

Ancient Hatti Civilization

The Hattis, among the earliest settlers in Anatolian history, ruled central Anatolia for approximately 500 years. Preferring small city kingdoms, they had a distinct language compared to other influential Anatolian civilizations. Mesopotamian influences are evident in Hatti art and culture.

Key Cities and Religious Beliefs

Prominent cities like Mahmatlar, Horoztepe, Alacahoyuk, and Hattus were situated within the Kizilirmak (Red River) bend. The Hattis believed in multiple gods representing various natural elements in animal form. Statues of their popular gods can be found in major Turkish museums.

Hatti and Hittite Principalities Period (2000-1750 B.C.)

Indo-European Migration and Coexistence

In the late 3rd millennium B.C., a significant migration occurred from North Europe to the milder south. The Hittites, part of the Indo-Europ



A Historical Overview

Ancient Capital and Trade Hub

Gordium is believed to have been the capital of Meshech, located where the Royal Road of Persian Kings intersected the Sangarius (Sakarya) River. This positioning made it a bustling commercial center, as noted in the Old Testament, Ezekiel 27:13, mentioning Meshech’s involvement in the slave and bronze trade.

Early Settlement and Hittite Influence

Excavations over the past four decades revealed its occupation as early as the third millennium B.C. Between 2000 and 1200 B.C., Gordium served as a significant Hittite outpost with Assyrian colonists. The Phrygians settled in the 9th century Hurri Civilization, marking the city’s peak prosperity in the 8th century.

Decline and Resurgence

Cimmerian invasions in 690 B.C. led to the destruction of Gordium, but it was rebuilt by the Lydians. In 547-546 B.C., Cyrus and his army destroyed the city

The Higher The Flight, The Lower The Fall part 1

HollandIntroductionUntil comparatively recent times Holland has not produced very much in the way of short stories. Before the beginning of the modem period, and particularly the advent of Herman Heijermans, Dutch writers were more...

The Sailor and the Pearl Merchant part 8

The next day, therefore, the sailor took on board the old man and a black slave, and for three months they sailed, until they once more reached the island of pearls. There they made...

The Sailor and the Pearl Merchant part 7

Full of terror the sailor swam till he reached the other side of the mountain. There he met an old man who greeted him, and, after hearing his adventure, fed him and took him...

The Sailor and the Pearl Merchant part 6

But at the sound of his footsteps they raised their heads and called out “Who are you?” He told them that the shepherd had brought him and offered him hospitality. A great cry arose...

The Sailor and the Pearl Merchant part 4

In great terror the sailors saw their ship being carried like the wind against the mountain. Soon it was caught in the whirlpool, where the wrecks of ten thousand ancient ships were being carried...

The Sailor and the Pearl Merchant part 3

Full of trouble and despondency, he sat down at the water`s brink, wondering what he was to do. As he gazed at the sea there came into view a ship, and he saw that...

The Sailor and the Pearl Merchant part 2

I desire you to go down into this pit and send up sufficient pearls to fill these sacks. Half I will give to you, and we shall be able to spend the rest of...

Balkan tours 2018




Istanbul Modern