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Challenges and Decline in the Seleucid Kingdom

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During its zenith around 300 B.C., the Seleucid Kingdom, led by Seleucus Nicator, spanned approximately 1.5 million square miles. Despite being considered Alexander’s true heir due to significant territorial acquisitions, Seleucus faced numerous challenges that impeded the kingdom’s stability and unity.

Ethnic Disunity and Territorial Losses

The primary obstacle was ethnic disunity, resulting in Greek factionalism, varied governance across provinces, and anti-Greek sentiments among the native populations. Foreign adversaries surrounded the kingdom, contributing to its sluggish responsiveness Ancient States of Asia Minor. Seleucus had to relinquish the Indus Valley, and during his reign, Armenia, northern Anatolia, and northwestern Iran gained independence.

Challenges Under Antiochus I

Under the rule of the second Seleucid king, Antiochus I (281-261), the situation worsened. Gauls invaded from th

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